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Geological Survey spread across the petroleum reserve and worked to determine its extent until , when the Navy suspended funding for the project.

This success and the previous Navy exploration of its petroleum reserve led petroleum engineers to the conclusion that the area of Alaska north of the Brooks Range surely held large amounts of oil and gas.

By January , reports began circulating that natural gas had been discovered by a discovery well. Together, the two wells confirmed the existence of the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field.

The new field contained more than 25 billion barrels 4. The problem soon became how to develop the oil field and ship product to U.

Pipeline systems represent a high initial cost but lower operating costs, but no pipeline of the necessary length had yet been constructed.

Several other solutions were offered. Boeing proposed a series of gigantic engine tanker aircraft to transport oil from the field, the Boeing RC During the voyage, the ship suffered damage to several of its cargo holds, which flooded with seawater.

Although the Manhattan transited the Northwest Passage again in the summer of , the concept was considered too risky. Even before the first feasibility studies began, the oil companies had chosen the approximate route of the pipeline.

Another right of way was requested to build a construction and maintenance highway paralleling the pipeline. A document of just 20 pages contained all of the information TAPS had collected about the route up to that stage in its surveying.

The Interior Department responded by sending personnel to analyze the proposed route and plan. Max Brewer, an arctic expert in charge of the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory at Barrow, concluded that the plan to bury most of the pipeline was completely unfeasible because of the abundance of permafrost along the route.

In a report, Brewer said the hot oil conveyed by the pipeline would melt the underlying permafrost, causing the pipeline to fail as its support turned to mud.

This report was passed along to the appropriate committees of the U. House and Senate , which had to approve the right-of-way proposal because it asked for more land than authorized in the Mineral Leasing Act of and because it would break a development freeze imposed in by former Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall.

Udall imposed the freeze on any projects involving land claimed by Alaska Natives in hopes that an overarching Native claims settlement would result.

By the end of September, all the relevant villages had waived their right-of-way claims, and Secretary of the Interior Wally Hickel asked Congress to lift the land freeze for the entire TAPS project.

After several months of questioning by the House and Senate committees with oversight of the project, Hickel was given the authority to lift the land freeze and give the go-ahead to TAPS.

TAPS began issuing letters of intent to contractors for construction of the "haul road", a highway running the length of the pipeline route to be used for construction.

Heavy equipment was prepared, and crews prepared to go to work after Hickel gave permission and the snow melted.

Several of the native villages that had waived claims on the right of way reneged because TAPS had not chosen any Native contractors for the project and the contractors chosen were not likely to hire Native workers.

Hart issued an injunction against the project, preventing the Interior Department from issuing a construction permit and halting the project in its tracks.

After the Department of the Interior was stopped from issuing a construction permit, the unincorporated TAPS consortium was reorganized into the new incorporated Alyeska Pipeline Service Company.

Patton was put in charge of the new company and began to lobby strongly in favor of an Alaska Native claims settlement to resolve the disputes over the pipeline right of way.

Opposition to construction of the pipeline primarily came from two sources: Alaska Native groups and conservationists. Alaska Natives were upset that the pipeline would cross the land traditionally claimed by a variety of native groups, but no economic benefits would accrue to them directly.

Conservationists were angry at what they saw as an incursion into America's last wilderness. Although conservation groups and environmental organizations had voiced opposition to the pipeline project before , the introduction of the National Environmental Policy Act allowed them legal grounds to halt the project.

Arctic engineers had raised concerns about the way plans for a subterranean pipeline showed ignorance of Arctic engineering and permafrost in particular.

The injunction against the project forced Alyeska to do further research throughout the summer of The collected material was turned over to the Interior Department in October , [40] and a draft environmental impact statement was published in January One element of opposition the report quelled was the discussion of alternatives.

All the proposed alternatives—extension of the Alaska Railroad, an alternative route through Canada, establishing a port at Prudhoe Bay, and more—were deemed to pose more environmental risks than construction of a pipeline directly across Alaska.

Opposition also was directed at the building of the construction and maintenance highway parallel to the pipeline.

Although a clause in Alyeska's pipeline proposal called for removal of the pipeline at a certain point, no such provision was made for removal of the road.

Sydney Howe, president of the Conservation Foundation, warned: "The oil might last for fifty years. A road would remain forever.

In testimony, an environmentalist argued that arctic trees, though only a few feet tall, had been seedlings "when George Washington was inaugurated".

The portion of the environmental debate with the biggest symbolic impact took place when discussing the pipeline's impact on caribou herds.

This idea was exploited in anti-pipeline advertising, most notably when a picture of a forklift carrying several legally shot caribou was emblazoned with the slogan, "There is more than one way to get caribou across the Alaska Pipeline".

The pipeline interferes with Caribou migration routes but crossing points were installed to help limit disruption. Congress to compensate statewide Native claims.

The shares paid dividends based on both the settlement and corporation profits. Another objection of the natives was the potential for the pipeline to disrupt a traditional way of life.

Many natives were worried that the disruption caused by the pipeline would scare away the whales and caribou that are relied upon for food.

In both the courts and Congress, Alyeska and the oil companies fought for the pipeline's construction amidst opposition concerning the pipeline's EIS environmental impact statement.

The arguments continued through Objections about the caribou herds were countered by observations of Davidson Ditch , a water pipeline with the same diameter of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, which caribou were able to jump over.

All the arguments both for and against the pipeline were incorporated into the 3,page, 9-volume final environmental impact statement, which was released on March 20, Ted Stevens felt the statement "was not written by a proponent," it maintained the general approval for pipeline construction that was demonstrated in the draft statement.

Secretary of the Interior Rogers Morton allowed 45 days of comment after the release, and conservationists created a 1,page document opposing the impact statement.

The environmental groups that had filed the injunction appealed the decision, and on October 6, , the U.

District Court of Appeals in Washington, D. The appeals court said that although the impact statement followed the guidelines set by the National Environmental Policy Act, it did not follow the Minerals Leasing Act, which allowed for a smaller pipeline right of way than was required for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline.

Supreme Court, but in April , the court declined to hear the case. With the appeals court having decided that the Minerals Leasing Act did not cover the pipeline's requirements, Alyeska and the oil companies began lobbying Congress to either amend the act or create a new law that would permit a larger right-of-way.

The Senate Interior Committee began the first hearings on a series of bills to that effect on March 9, They believed the "leave it in the ground" argument was doomed to fail, and the best way to oppose the pipeline would be to propose an ineffective alternative which could be easily defeated.

Hearings in both the U. Senate and the House continued through the summer of on both new bills and amendments to the Mineral Leasing Act. On July 13, an amendment calling for more study of the project—the Mondale-Bayh Amendment —was defeated.

Mike Gravel was passed by the Senate. The amendment declared that the pipeline project fulfilled all aspects of NEPA and modified the Mineral Leasing Act to allow the larger right-of-way for the Alaska pipeline.

Because the United States imported approximately 35 percent of its oil from foreign sources, [72] the embargo had a major effect.

The price of gasoline shot upward, gasoline shortages were common, and rationing was considered. Most Americans began demanding a solution to the problem, and President Richard Nixon began lobbying for the Trans-Alaska Pipeline as at least a part of the answer.

Nixon supported the pipeline project even before the oil crisis. On September 10, , he released a message stating that the pipeline was his priority for the remainder of the Congressional session that year.

Members of Congress, under pressure from their constituents, created the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act , which removed all legal barriers from construction of the pipeline, provided financial incentives, and granted a right-of-way for its construction.

The act was drafted, rushed through committee, and approved by the House on November 12, , by a vote of —14— The next day, the Senate passed it, 80—5— Although the legal right-of-way was cleared by January , cold weather, the need to hire workers, and construction of the Dalton Highway meant work on the pipeline itself did not begin until March.

Construction workers endured long hours, cold temperatures, and brutal conditions. Difficult terrain, particularly in Atigun Pass , Keystone Canyon , and near the Sagavanirktok River forced workers to come up with solutions for unforeseen problems.

Thirty-two Alyeska and contract employees died from causes directly related to construction. That figure does not include common carrier casualties.

The construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System and its completion in had an immense effect on Alaska, the United States as a whole, and the rest of the world.

Its impact has included economic, physical, and social repercussions running the gamut from life in small towns to the global oil market. Construction of the pipeline caused a massive economic boom in towns up and down the pipeline route.

Prior to construction, most residents in towns like Fairbanks—still recovering from the devastating Fairbanks Flood —strongly supported the pipeline.

This increase in population caused many adverse effects. The skyrocketing prices were driven by the high salaries paid to pipeline workers, who were eager to spend their money.

Non-pipeline businesses often could not keep up with the demand for higher wages, and job turnover was high. Yellow cab in Fairbanks had a turnover rate of percent; a nearby restaurant had a turnover rate of more than 1, percent.

To meet the demand, a Fairbanks high school ran in two shifts: one in the morning and the other in the afternoon in order to teach students who also worked eight hours per day.

The large sums of money being made and spent caused an upsurge in crime and illicit activity in towns along the pipeline route.

This was exacerbated by the fact that police officers and state troopers resigned in large groups to become pipeline security guards at wages far in excess of those available in public-sector jobs.

In , the Fairbanks Police Department estimated between 40 and prostitutes were working in the city of 15, people. In , police responded to a shootout between warring pimps who wielded automatic firearms.

Poor accounting and record keeping allowed large numbers of tools and large amounts of equipment to be stolen. Alyeska denied the problem and said only 20—30 trucks were missing.

The boxes then would be filled with items and shipped out. After Alyeska ruled that all packages had to be sealed in the presence of a security guard, the number of packages being sent from camps dropped by 75 percent.

Since the completion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System in , [3] the government of the state of Alaska has been reliant on taxes paid by oil producers and shippers.

Prior to , Alaska's personal income tax rate was By , five years after the pipeline started transporting oil, The series of taxes levied on oil production in Alaska has changed several times since , but the overall form remains mostly the same.

The state also has a property tax on oil production structures and transportation pipeline property—the only state property tax in Alaska. There is a special corporate income tax on petroleum companies, and the state taxes the amount of petroleum produced.

This production tax is levied on the cost of oil at Pump Station 1. To calculate this tax, the state takes the market value of the oil, subtracts transportation costs tanker and pipeline tariffs , subtracts production costs, then multiplies the resulting amount per barrel of oil produced each month.

The state then takes a percentage of the dollar figure produced. Under the latest taxation system, introduced by former governor Sarah Palin in and passed by the Alaska Legislature that year, the maximum tax rate on profits is 50 percent.

The rate fluctuates based on the cost of oil, with lower prices incurring lower tax rates. This "royalty oil" is not taxed but is sold back to the oil companies, generating additional revenue.

This property tax is based on the pipeline's value as assessed by the state and the local property tax rate.

The enormous amount of public revenue created by the pipeline provoked debates about what to do with the windfall.

To ensure that oil revenue wasn't spent as it came in, the Alaska Legislature and governor Jay Hammond proposed the creation of an Alaska Permanent Fund —a long-term savings account for the state.

The amendment requires at least 25 percent of mineral extraction revenue to be deposited in the Permanent Fund. That deposit and subsequent ones were invested entirely in bonds, but debates quickly arose about the style of investments and what they should be used for.

In , the Alaska Legislature created the Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation to manage the investments of the Permanent Fund, and it passed the Permanent Fund Dividend program, which provided for annual payments to Alaskans from the interest earned by the fund.

After two years of legal arguments about who should be eligible for payments, the first checks were distributed to Alaskans.

Although the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System began pumping oil in , [3] it did not have a major immediate impact on global oil prices.

Oil prices remained high until the late s, [] when a stable international situation, the removal of price controls, and the peak of production at Prudhoe Bay contributed to the s oil glut.

The pipeline attracts tens of thousands of visitors annually on pipeline tourism trips. Knight starred in one of two movies about the pipeline construction, Pipe Dreams.

The other film was Joyride , and both were critically panned. The Alistair Maclean novel, "Athabasca", published , also deals with a sabotage threat against both the Alaska Pipeline and the Athabasca tar sands in Canada.

The pipeline has also inspired various forms of artwork. The most notable form of art unique to the pipeline are pipeline maps—portions of scrap pipe cut into the shape of Alaska with a piece of metal delineating the path of the pipeline through the map.

However, many local Inuit rely on the pipeline and oil industry for income. It is also a source of heat and energy for locals.

The Prudhoe Bay Oil Field, the one most commonly associated with the pipeline, contributes oil, [18] as do the Kuparuk , [] Alpine , [] Endicott , and Liberty oil fields, among others.

The minimum flow year was which averaged , barrels per day 80, The minimum flow through the pipeline is not as clearly defined as its maximum.

Operating at lower flows will extend the life of the pipeline as well as increasing profit for its owners. Low flowrates require that the oil move slower through the line, meaning that its temperature drops more than in high-flow situations.

A freeze in the line would block a pig in the line, which would force a shutdown and repairs. This report noted that these improvements could bring flow as low as , bbd, but it did not attempt to determine the absolute minimum.

Other studies have suggested that the minimum is 70, to , bbd with the current pipeline. Alyeska could also replace the 48" pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Fairbanks with a 20" pipeline and use rail the rest of the way, which would allow as little as 45, bbd.

Pumping stations maintain the momentum of the oil as it goes through the pipeline. The original design called for 12 pump stations with 4 pumps each, but Pump Station 11 was never built.

Nevertheless, the pump stations retained their intended naming system. Eight stations were operating at startup, and this number increased to 11 by as throughput rose.

Forty-two thousand of these sections were welded together to make a double joint, which was laid in place on the line. Sixty-six thousand "field girth welds" were needed to join the double joints into a continuous pipeline.

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